Farming is about producing food (mainly) for people, who (mainly) access it through economic markets. The demand for food (including what is grown and how it is produced) is shaped by markets, including trade, and policies (agriculture but also e.g. land use and climate policies). How do these factors shape what night be seen as “sustainable agriculture”? There are two broad contrasting visions for sustainability: “sustainable intensification” vs regenerative agriculture, with integrated farming, providing diverse landscapes. Which paradigm will dominate in years ahead, what might cause it so to do, and how can we ensure the right one is put into practice at scale?